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Потенциал биомассы и перспективы развития биоэнергетики в УзбекистанеЖ. Иззатуллаев, К.М. Файзуллаев
Институт энергетики и автоматики АН РУз
In Uzbekistan as an energy resources for production of thermal and electric energy (by direct burning or gasification) cotton stalks, a cane, the rests of other branches of plant growing, animal husbandry waste, industrial and household wastes can be used. The greatest interest from the sources of raw materials set forth above is represented by manure and the bird's dung, a waste of the enterprises for processing of agricultural products and sewage which are accessible all the round.
The agro-industrial complex of the country having extensive resource base, which basis made by agriculture and animal husbandry production, makes various kinds of agricultural products. Now the main part of agricultural production is provided farmer and dehkan farms. Everything, in republic, by agricultural producers of all categories use over 17 million in hectares of farmlands. Generally they are distributed between pastures and an arable land. The most valuable ground resource of the country – an arable land. The total area of crops of agricultural crops in economy of all categories makes more than 3,5 million in hectares.
Organic waste of an agricultural production makes one of sections of modern power – bio-energetics. Preliminary studies have shown, that the most comprehensible direction of use of a biomass in Uzbekistan at the first stage is the organization of manufacture of biogas by processing of a biomass and an organic waste of agriculture. In them contains considerable quantity of energy, and on the other hand, concentration of this waste on of production place – on integrated poultry farms and cattle-breeding complexes – reaches very high indicators of ecological danger. The organization of such production gives the chance to receive organic fertilizer of high quality, an additional independent energy source, to lower emissions of hotbed gases and an ecological damage from systems of gathering of an organic waste, to create ecologically closed power system.
The animal husbandry sector is very developed in Uzbekistan, about 45 % of the agricultural production made in the country are the share of it. The main feature of sector that the most part of cattle-breeding production is created in small family (dehkan) farms. Production of cattle-breeding production in decanal farms has the great social value as is important sources of incomes and consumption for considerable number of families. In the Republic of Uzbekistan is available about 10 thousand cattle-breeding farms (with a livestock cattle, sheep breeding, pig breeding and poultry farming), and also about 3 million the citizens registered as animals occupied with cultivation and a bird in personal subsidiary and dehkan farms. In any farm within a year the significant amount of manure, a tops of vegetable of plants, a various organic waste gathers. Use of this waste for biogas reception can help to solve to economy a problem of power supply of the economy, including heating and heating water, cooking, power generation, receiving of motor fuel for agricultural machinery.
The number of cattle in all categories of farms makes more than 10 million heads, and this figure increases annually by 3-5 % to that promotes and the Decision of the President of Islam Karimov «About measures on stimulation of increase in a livestock of cattle in personal subsidiary, dehkan and farms» from March, 23 rd, 2006 serves as the important factor of development of animal husbandry. The impressive figure if to consider, that on 27 European countries it is necessary less than 100 million heads of large horned livestock (on one country – 3,7 million heads КРС). Except КРС in republic there is a livestock of sheep and goats - 16 million heads, and also birds about 50 million heads.
At available in cattle-breeding and poultry-farming economy technical potential of 147 million tons bio waste in a year, only 23 thousand tons a year that makes 0,02 % on the average is now processed.
It is necessary to tell, that in republic operates about 20 enterprises for processing of meat with the various pattern of ownership, located in the regional centre and large cities. At the poultry farming enterprises production turkey and chicken meat also is adjusted. Total capacity of meat production makes 320 thousand tons of meat and sausage products in a year.
In Uzbekistan operate about 9 thousand the enterprises specializing on production of food productions work. Since 1998 in Uzbekistan the sugar industry started developing and now manufacture on processing of reed raw sugar reached more than 500 thousand tons of sugar a year. The food branch makes wide assortment food and articles of food — fruit-and-vegetable canned food, juice, drinks, vegetable oils, meat and dairy products. Uzbekistan is one of the world's largest producers of a tomato paste, raisin, dried fruits who possess unique flavoring qualities. Entering into the first five of world manufacturers of a tomato paste and in ten producers of dried fruits. It is necessary to tell, that in republic 17 large enterprises for processing of meat with the various pattern of ownership, located in the regional centers and large cities operate. Total capacity of the enterprises of the meat industry of Uzbekistan makes 320 thousand tons of production a year.
Today Uzbekistan is the main producer r of grapes and products of its processing in Central Asia. Since 2006 the new period of development of wine making the industries of Uzbekistan began. From 2006 - wine making branch of Uzbekistan is allocated by the decision of the President of Republic Uzbekistan in independent specialized branch which is represented today by company "Uzvinprom-holding". The company structure includes more than 600 enterprises and the organizations, from which 72 industrial enterprises the including enterprises of primary winemaking, alcoholic beverage, ethyl spirit and beer, productivity of 380 million liters in a year.
In plant growing two types of cultures – grain and a cotton dominate. The area occupied grain, makes over 1,5 million in hectares, and cotton crops are made on 1,45 million in hectares. It is possible to remove from one hectare of the earths sowed by a clap from 2,0 to 4,0 tons of stalks of a cotton. The dried up stalks of a cotton since olden days are used in a countryside as fuel. On calorific to ability these stalks of a cotton are similar to a waste of timber cuttings. These stalks in quality energy resource can be used after processing in the form of briquettes or from them biogas by thermochemical decomposition can be received. The annual total energy potential of this kind of a biomass is estimated from 1,1 to 2,2 million t.o.e., technical potential (at use of technology of thermochemical conversion of a biomass) – from 0,13 to 0,26 million t.o.e.
Other vegetative resource – a cane, spontaneously is reproduced on coast of channels and reservoirs in volume – 10-12 million tons.
Resources of timber cuttings are insignificant, as only insignificant part of territory of Uzbekistan (3,2 % from a total area of the earths) is covered by woods: the greatest area is occupied with a saxaul, a juniper, saltwort. All woods of Uzbekistan are carried to I group and commercial cabins in them are forbidden. Only reforestation, sanitary and other views of noncommercial cabins are carried out.
In Uzbekistan it is annually formed about 20 million in m³ a municipal solid waste (MSW), and the general accumulation of such waste on 182 ranges located near to settlements and occupying 780 hectares of the earths makes now more than 300 million м3. Except for several large cities (Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan and Namangan) on existing ranges is absent the monitoring system and the account of actual receipt MSW, and also the monitoring system and managements of a burial place of a waste. As consequence in the absence of enough comprehensible technology of processing ТБО, in atmosphere it is thrown out landfill gas (methane, carbon dioxide and small impurity of other gases), formed of an organic part of a waste.
At processing of sewage at aeration stations silt which can be applied as raw materials to biogas development is formed. At anaerobic fermentation silt biogas is allocated. The firm rest, depending on its toxicity, can be taken out on a dump or is used as a soils improver. By expert estimations, in Uzbekistan at aeration stations annually accumulates about 1 million tons of silt.
Potential of an organic waste, suitable for annual anaerobic fermentation in Uzbekistan
The total amount of an organic waste for a year makes 176 million tons. Thus potential production of biogas in a year can make 9,7 b.м3 (on calorific to ability it corresponds 6,4 billion m? natural gas, that makes over 40 % of annual requirement of the population of republic gas) from which it is possible to receive 15 million GW. of electric power and 14 million Gcal. of thermal energy, and also 62 million tons of environmental pure organic fertilizer. Processing of this waste in biogas complexes solves not only a problem of their recycling, but also indirectly (at the expense of replacement of hydrocarbons in a power balance) reduce emissions in atmosphere of hotbed gases not less than 11,2 billion tons/years.
The technical potential of biogas can be essentially increased due to use of a firm household waste, deposits of city sewage at stations of aeration, the organization of gathering and recycling of a city vegetative waste, uses of a waste of manufactures on processing of agricultural production. For an exact estimation of efficiency of an energy potential of a biomass it is necessary to carry out careful research.
For the purpose of introduction ecological and energy effective technologies in agro industrial complex of republic by Cabinet of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2015 the decision «About measures on stimulation of building of biogas installations in cattle-breeding and poultry-farming farms of the republic» in which granting of tax and customs privileges and preferences for the organizations maintaining is provided, and also biogas installations specializing on production is accepted.
In this resolution the Government of Uzbekistan recommended to commercial banks to give grants of Global ecological fund (GEF) and credits to initiators of projects on building of biogas installations in the agricultural enterprises of Uzbekistan for the interest rate, the rates of refinancing of the Central bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The order according to which under demands of initiators of civil-engineering designs of biogas installations, granting of the ground areas and delivery of permissions to realization of civil and erection works by the authorized organizations is carried out by a principle «one window» is established.
The resolution provided development of methodical recommendations about construction, installation of the specialized equipment and operation, and also a standard project of biogas installation.
It is informed on possibility of inclusion of the enterprises specializing on production of biogas installations, in process of the beginning of production of the equipment, spare parts and accessories for biogas installations in the Program of localization of production of the finished goods, completing products and materials on the basis of industrial cooperation.
It is established that, the consumers of electric energy having installations on manufacture of the electric power from renewable sources can deliver is superfluous the developed electric power to electric networks of a uniform electro power system in accordance with the established procedure.
Inclusion, since 2016/2017, in programs on corresponding subject matters of the highest, average special, professional educational institutions by that (sections) «Biogas installations is provided. Building and operation».
Development of the territorial address program of building of biogas installations on cattle-breeding and poultry-farming farms in which and together with Ministry of Economics of the Republic of Uzbekistan in three-month time it is recommended to Minister council of the Republic of Karakalpakstan government of areas to approve it in accordance with the established produce is provided. According to the program project commissioning on farms by 2020 about 6 thousand BGI with the general capacity of bioreactors about 530 thousand м3, the organic waste intended for processing for a year more than 5,4 million tons is supposed. Thus potential production of biogas in a year can make 300 million м3, and also 1,9 million tons of environmentally pure organic fertilizer.
The analysis of the market of the equipment and accessories shows, that for today in the market of Uzbekistan there are some necessary knots and details for installation BGI. Besides, specialization and capacities of some Uzbek enterprises allow to organize own manufacture.
With growth in republic of requirements for fuel and energy resources, the question of their stable power supply which decision is partly possible introduction modern energy efficiency biogas technologies is actual. Taking into account world experience and available volume of an organic waste in countryside, the agrarian sector of republic from the energy consumer can turn to its manufacturer. In this perspective direction of development of agriculture today are engaged in the leading countries of the world.
By means of scale introduction of biogas technologies it is possible to solve a problem of power supply not only the remote rural settlements, but also to replace the natural gas used at the enterprises for processing of agricultural production and for heating of hothouses. Besides, biogas manufacture can become a new market niche for creation of highly profitable business and new workplaces. For this purpose biogas technologies should pass from the category skilled-experimental in the category of a commercial product.
From the above-stated follows, that Uzbekistan for development of the market of biogas technologies has good starting technical possibilities and has all necessary for formation of the high-grade biogas market – a considerable raw-material base, a great demand for biogas installations, capacities and the state support.
Development biogas energy in Uzbekistan and the organization of introduction of biogas complexes on processing of an organic waste in the Republic of Uzbekistan can solve a complex of global problems, including:
-Ecological (utilization and processing of agricultural and other organic waste, improvement of ecological situations);
-Energy efficiency (reception of heat, the electric power and gas, and also decrease in volatility from a rise in prices for not renewable energy sources);
-Economic (reception of profit at the expense of decrease in expenses for purchase of thermal and electric energy, an exception of expenses for payment of technological connection to the centralized networks and acquisition of fertilizers);
-Agrochemical (release of the highly effective ecologically pure organic fertilizers which are not containing seeds of weeds and pathogenic microflora);
-Social (creation of new work places and comfortable conditions for accommodation of the population in zones of the decentralized power supply).
Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Ж. Иззатуллаев, К.М. Файзуллаев Потенциал биомассы и перспективы развития биоэнергетики в Узбекистане // Онлайн Электрик: Электроэнергетика. Новые технологии, 2016.–URL: /articles.php?id=170 (Дата обращения: 18.05.2022)