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Онлайн Электрик > Электронная конференция «Электроэнергетика. Новые технологии»
Современное состояние и перспективы развития биоэнергетики в УзбекистанеЖ. Иззатуллаев, К.М. Файзуллаев
Институт энергетики и автоматики АН РУз
The power is one of bases of development of economy of a modern society. Now one of the major problems of world power is the exhaustion of natural energy resources – oil, gas, coal, there is a cutting down forest plantation. Expanded use of traditional energy sources causes global ecological and climatic consequences. In a consequence of it, now prompt growth and development energy efficiency technologies and use of renewable energy sources (RES), power resources providing increase, and also ecological and social effect all over the world is observed now. For today the shares of RES in the general delivery of primary energy in the world makes about 13 % though the basic share among them while is made by traditional kinds of renewable energy sources – wood and large hydroelectric power stations. The share of alternative energy sources (АES) in production electric and thermal energy in the world according to the International power agency (IPA) makes about 5 %.
According to forecast IPA, to the middle of this century share of RES in the general power balance of a planet should reach 40 %. However this process is in Uzbekistan at the initial stage and develops extremely slowly. The national economy is constructed on use of mainly hydrocarbonic raw materials which in an overwhelming part goes for internal needs. Uzbekistan is rich with traditional power resources: natural gas, coal, oil, combustible slates, uranium, resources for hydropower. Except uranium and the combustible slates, all other sources of power resources are actively used in a country power balance.
Uzbekistan uses favorable conditions of possession own hydrocarbonic resources, which general stocks of fields. According to the published data make 2,2-5,1 billion t.o.e., including 82-245 million t.o.e. of oil, 1476-1979 million t.o.e. of natural gas and 639-2851 million t.o.e. of coal. Despite presence of rich stocks of hydrocarbonic raw materials in Uzbekistan, these energy sources are not renewable.
Production and consumption ТЭР in Uzbekistan
The most part of extracted hydrocarbons is used for internal needs. Only natural gas is exported. The basic consumers of fossil fuel - power sector, the industrial enterprises, transport, the population, small and medium business.
At the same time, the structure of energy consumption reflects that fact, that Uzbekistan is richest with natural gas, which makes in it energy consumption not only the main (about 92 %), but also an increasing share. In the analysis of balance of natural gas it is visible, that its considerable share – 19-20 % is used in republic for production of an electric energy. On production of the thermal electric power and hot water (centralized and decentralized), and also on cooking it is in aggregate spent about 30 % of natural gas (including about 7 % – the centralized boiler-houses).
In structure of natural gas for last decade more, than the share directed on export – from 9,2 % to 20,2 % has twice grown, that in the conditions of growth of the world prices for the gas, multiply exceeding the internal prices, growth of currency incomes of oil and gas branch and receipt of the state budget provides, and also improves structure of trading, currency and payment balances.
Structure of use of natural gas
Before the country there is a problem on maintenance of annual rates of growth of gross national product of the country at level not less than 8 % a year during the long period. The measures realized for this purpose among which creation of new large production with the high added cost, small-scale business and business development, development of an infrastructure will demand adequate growth energy consumption in industrial sector. At the same time, the steady growth of a population and level of its incomes at existing tendencies will lead to growth energy consumption in household sector.
The republic power supply system possesses today sufficient capacity for maintenance with electric energy of consumers in the country and export abroad. However the tendency of development of power of the world, fast growth of the population of republic and their requirement for energy, and also decrease in stocks of hydrocarbonic raw materials (stocks of coal available in Uzbekistan will suffice only the next 40-50 years, oil – for 10-12 years, natural gas – for 28-30 years), causes the necessity of the accelerated development of renewable energy in Uzbekistan. Besides, reliability of power supply and quality of the electric power do not meet requirements of modern technologies which are widely introduced in the republic.
Thus Uzbekistan possesses a high potential of RES which, by estimations of experts in 3,1 times exceeding current level of annual volume of extraction of primary power resources. By consideration of technological possibilities of use of RES in directions of use of hydrocarbonic raw materials: only energy of a biomass, and in the future, it is possible also a solar energy, can become alternative in three of the basic directions of use of hydrocarbonic raw materials. Other directions of alternative energy sources are limited by 1-2 directions.
The possible directions of use of various kinds of RES in Uzbekistan
Thus, the basic spheres of introduction of RES in Uzbekistan can be electricity generation (6 answers "yes" from 6) and heating with hot water supply (3 answers "yes" from 6), and also motor fuel (2-3 answers "yes").
Now in republic a lot of work on development and use of alternative power engineering is carried out. Efforts on development of scientifically-industrial potential in sphere of RES , including carrying out of researches and trial workings out in sphere AES, practical use, taking into account the world experience, separate decisions on their application in the conditions of Uzbekistan, and also the organization of a domestic production of the modern equipment and technologies for this sphere are made.
Creation of corresponding legislative base is the key moment in development of renewable power in the country. Formation of the market of renewable power is frequent enough goes in parallel with working out of a necessary legal field. In Uzbekistan, despite lacking concrete acts in the field of renewable power, the is standard-legal base of development of RES is actively formed now and a number of laws which can govern relations in this sphere, including laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan is accepted:
- «About conservation» (1992)
- «About protection of atmospheric air» (1996)
- «About a competition and restriction of monopolistically activity in the commodity markets» (1996)
- «About rational use of energy» (1997)
- «About natural monopolies» (1997)
- «About environmental assessment» (1997)
- «About licensing of separate kinds of activity» (2000)
- «About electric energy» (2009).
In these given laws there are special articles defining frame conditions of use of renewable energy sources. The national policy in the field of renewable power and energy efficiency in Uzbekistan is reflected also in following regulations:
- Decrees of the President «About deepening of economic reforms in power of Republic Uzbekistan (2001), « About the Program of measures for support of the enterprises of real sector of economy, ensuring of their stable work and increase in a export potential» (2008), «About measures on the further development of alternative energy sources» (2013),
- Resolutions of the President and the Cabinet «About development of small hydro-power of Republic Uzbekistan» (1995), «State the program «Year of development and a village accomplishment» (2009), «About measures on project realization «Increase energy efficiency of the industrial enterprises» with participation of the International association of development» (2011), «About the Government program «Year of well-being and prosperity» (2013), «About the action program on Republic Uzbekistan environmental protection for 2013-2017» (2013), «About additional measures on project realization «Support of the agricultural enterprises. A phase II» with participation of the International association of development» (2014), «About the Program of measures on power consumption reduction, introduction of energy saving technologies in branches of economy and social sphere for 2015-2019» (2015), «About measures on stimulation of building of biogas installations in cattle-breeding and poultry-farming economy of republic» (2015).
The decision of the President «About the Program of measures on power consumption reduction, introduction of energy saving technologies in branches of economy and social sphere for 2015-2019» is aimed on, and in it are mentioned a number of decisions of this problem. In particular, in it is spoken about:
- Creation of is standard-legal base for development and wide introduction of renewable energy sources (an adoption of law about of RES );
- Stimulation of building of biogas complexes on cattle-breeding and poultry-farming economy of republic;
- Attraction of the demand line of credit of the International financial corporation for financing of projects of a private sector on introduction of renewable energy sources and energy saving;
- Expansion of carrying out applied scientific researches and workings out in the field of introduction of energy saving technologies, financing of the best offers;
- Expansion of attraction of direct foreign investments, credits, including on a preferential basis, and grants for realization of energy saving projects and actions;
- Decrease power consumption in key branches of economy for 2015-2019 developed according to branch programs (on natural gas of 18 % – 36 % and the electric power of 5 % - 40 %) and programs heat supplying the organizations (on natural gas – 6,8 % and the electric power – 9,1 %).
Share of RES is equal in structure of production of primary energy of Uzbekistan of 1,6 % (water-power engineering). In the country 36 hydroelectric power stations (hydroelectric power station) the established capacity 1833,2 МWt. function. On hydroelectric power station it is annually developed on the average over 7 billion kWt. The contribution of others of RES in power balance is not considered. Solar a collector, photo-electric systems (FES), wind generators and biogas installations (BGI) in the power market of Uzbekistan are presented in very limited quantity.
In Uzbekistan more than half of population lives in rural areas. Thus the prevailing part of settlements, except for more than 1200 remote settlements and about 4500 shepherd of farms, has access to electric mains and gas networks. However economic estimations show, that use of the centralized system of power supply in rural areas not always is profitable. In the first, transfer of the electric power and natural gas is accompanied, the so-called, technical losses, which size depends on a kind of networks (main, distributive) and distances. Secondly, the toughening of ecological requirements conducting to rise in price of specific capital investments in building of traditional generating capacities, unequivocally promotes development of nonconventional sources. Uninterrupted maintenance of these objects with the electric power with traditional methods is complicated and economically is not justified, in this connection such of RES are most demanded in these regions of republic.
Because of long distances liquidation of emergency failures in rural areas can occupy a lot of time that affects stability of power supply. Besides household inconveniences for the population, faults in power supply negatively influence development of small and average business, animal industries and poultry farming development. Well and at last - as well as in all the world - tariffs for energy carriers grow from year to year. Performance of national programs on rural and housing-and-municipal economy is closely connected with the decision of domestic problems on power, ecology and some social problems. These projects demand intensive increase in power capacities and introduction of the combined power technologies on the basis of use of RES . All this forces rural consumers to think of use of AIS.
As Uzbekistan is generally the agrarian state, for the purpose of introduction of RES in republic will pay special attention on energy of a biomass, as the most addresses the need for ways of use of hydrocarbonic raw materials, and in particular on ecological utilization of an organic waste and receiving biogas reception. Biogas complexes can be considered as a kernel agricultural cluster, and biogas – pledge of steady power supply of rural areas in Uzbekistan.
Problem of satisfaction of requirements of the republic for electric and thermal energy, especially in the regions remote from the centralized power networks, and also questions of a sustainable development of Uzbekistan and decrease in negative influence of power on environment, lead to necessity of development of biogas technologies which can become further a serious additional source of gas and the electric power.
Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Ж. Иззатуллаев, К.М. Файзуллаев Современное состояние и перспективы развития биоэнергетики в Узбекистане // Онлайн Электрик: Электроэнергетика. Новые технологии, 2016.–URL: https://online-electric.ru/articles.php?id=169 (Дата обращения: 19.01.2019)
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